Tribes and their Background

General Information: whenever we are talking about the social formation of the tribe; then some questions come to our mind like what is tribe? What does it mean? How they are formed? What are the concept and so many other questions … Keeping this in mind; first we will give brief definition of the Tribe and then would discuss the details. 

Qabila (Tribe) is an Arabic word which means team or group; Tribes is the plural form of this word. Genealogical formation of. In English Language it’s called “Tribe” which is derived from the Latin word (Tribus). And in Arabic it’s called Shajara that means Tree. Synonym for this word in Pashtu language is Khil or Tabar. 

 

مكافات د كوم ګناه د كوم شامت دى

چې ډبر د مير جمله شو درست ټبر

 

Ethnographic structure of Pashtun tribe has the form of tree; lots of brunches and sections. Pashtun Ethnographic is made of seven branches which are called (Mor-Lor-Lamasi-Karusi-Kawasi-Kawdi and Paradi).

Since the beginning of the creation the human’s structure and formation has been in the process of change; the fundamental and basic life style has turned to modern and new way of life. And the new technology and facilities has changed the whole globe. Therefore, the term has always been tied to economic and social eras of the human creation.

Tribes still do exist in Asia and Africa continent such as American Indians. These tribal groups are called Aborigines in Australia and New Zealand. 

 According to some western researchers   there are about 20 million Pashtuns all around the world; which is totally falls estimation and is totally wrong. This misconception is same as the saying which says that Pashtuns are Arabs or Israel. This false statement has always been rejected based on the documents and evident by Afghan authors and historians.  According to them Pashtuns are typical Arians. In here we would provide answers to the questions such as do the formation of tribes change, if yes then under which circumstances?      

According to philosophers and researchers:

Arians have founded major civilization before 2500 B.C; and their second time it was founded in 1200 AD in Balkh area of Afghanistan. During this era, the ancient Balkh city was founded by Yama king and in 630 AD the Zardasht religion was accepted as their formal religion. 

During this era major civilization was founded; agriculture, literature and art were improved.

Afghanistan being invaded by Sikandar in 330 AD, invasion of Arabs 632 AD, spoliation of Changiz who ruined civilization and destroyed some cities of our country. Russia invasion during 1919-1839-1879, civil wars, and foreigner interferences are all worth mentioning.

These civil wars and foreigner interferences all made our country backward and not to make any progress. Wars and foreigner interferences do ruin and destroy countries; the advantages are only taken by those who impose the war on other countries. 

From Arndu and Asad Abad area of Kunar to Spin Boldak of Kandahar or from Dir and Bajawar to Koita and Chaman cross the borders all are Pashtun tribes and are living in a shared geographical environment.they are all sharing same culture , language , religion , and traditions , as well as historical achievements. For instance, Salarize, Momand , and Mshwani in Kunar , Dir and Bajawar are living in quite peaceful environment together . And the same Momand and Safi in Kunar and Momand agency, Momand and Shinwari in Nengrhar , Momand agency and Khibar agency ; they are living in these areas and share same culture , religion and language . 

Chamkni, Mangal, Zadran , Muqbil and Zazi in Paktia and Kuram agency ; Gurbaz of Khost and northern Waziristan , Saidgi and Wazir ( Tity Madakhil ) are all having friend and peaceful ties with one another. Wazir of Paktika and southern Wazirstan , Saidgi Sulimankhil and Dawtani are living in one geographical environment .  And tuba Kakar of Zabul and Zhob Kakar share the same geographical environment. Achakzi and Noorzi of Kandahar, Koita, Chaman and Gulistan are very having very friendly ties with one another. The same the Baloch of Nimroz and Baluchistan are having strong blood ties with one another.

 

Total population of the residents of the both sides of the borders is 6 million estimated; and the total area that it covers is 69959 km. Farming is their main   occupation. Exceeding number of population, poverty and unemployment has made most of the inhabitants to leave their villages and move to mega cities. According to some estimation almost 12000 families’ move to areas under control of Pakistan from the border areas.   

 

 

This process has been begun since 1965; till this time most of the families from Dir, Bajawar ,Momand , Khibar Egency and Afridi Shinwari have moved to areas around Peshwar such as Charsada, Mardan, Sawabi ,Nawshar and Takhtbai. Even the Mpomand and Afridi play imperative role in the central Assembly voting of Peshawr state. Wazir , Masid ,Dawar, Bitani have occupied lands in Tank ,Dira Ismail Khan and Banu. Now the question is if they move to urban areas from the borders …do they still remain Tribal inhabitants or not? The answer is no. Because their elders may know the traditions and customs but their coming generation won’t; they will adopt the new traditions and language of area and people where they are living. Almost 450000 young men including 300000 men from independent tribes and 150000 from Afghan borders have gone to Arab countries or Iran and Pakistan in search of work and for running their life. Their income per year is 648000.000.00 Afghani or 2 Milliard dollars. They run their life this way and are living in a very poor condition. They are poor and do not have access to the modern facilities and services. Governments have not served them the way it should have been. They have always been ignored by the governments and have always been treated as something like trash or of no use. And have been used and called in different ways and names. For instance, as it’s said that al-Qaida and Taliban militants are in Waziristan and are used for strategic purposes from there .As the topic of this discussion is tribes and formation of the tribes; in here we would like to discuss the terminology which is common and used among the people.  

 

الف: ترمينالوژي (Terminology) يا نوم ايښودنه:

1. كورنۍ يا Family.

2. ستره كورنۍ Joint Family.

3. كهول Great Joint Family

4. پلرينه Sub clan

5. پښه Small clan

6. تپه Great clan

7. خيل Sub Tribe

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8. ستر خيل يا قبيله Tribe.

9. د قبيلو اتحاديه Tribal Union.

10. د قبيلو وړوكې اتحاد Tribal Sub Federation.

11. د قبيلو ستر اتحاد Tribal Federation.

12. د قبيلو پراخ اتحاد Tribal Federal Union.

13. د قبايلو كانفدراسيون Tribal Confederation.

This terminology (from family to confederation) is same as the rings of a chin; they are all are tied and attached to one another. It could be shown more clearly in the below tribal pyramid.  Tribe is made up of or in another word the base of the tribe is a Family .And group of families make great joint family; group of great joint families make sub clan and group of sub clan make small clan, group of sub clan make great clans; great clans make sub tribes and finally group of sub tribes make a tribe. ............see more